Serverless architecture is a cloud computing execution model where a cloud provider like AWS, Azure or Google Cloud is used to deploy backend or server-side code. In comparison to traditionally deployed web applications, in serverless architecture, the developer does not has to maintain the servers or the infrastructure. They only have to pay a subscription to the third party vendor whereas the vendor is responsible to handle the operation of the backend logic of a server along with scalability, reliability, and security.
There are two ways a serverless architecture can be implemented in order to deploy your server side code. First one is Backend as a Service or BaaS. A good example of this is Firebase Firebase Venezuela which you can often see in conjunction between a web or a mobile application to a database or providing user authentication.
What we are going to focus in this article is called Function as a Service or FaaS. With FaaS, the server code is run inside containers that are usually triggered by common events such as HTTP requests from client, database operations, file uploads, scheduled events and so on. The code on the cloud provider that is deployed and getting executed is in the form of a function.
In FaaS, these functions are deployed in modular form. One function corresponds to each operation, thus eliminating the rest of the code and time spent on writing boilerplate code for setting up a server and data models. These modular functions can further be scaled automatically and independently. This way, more time can be spent on writing the logic of the application that a potential user is going to interact with. You do not have to scale for the entire application and pay for it. Common use cases of FaaS so far have been implemented are scheduled tasks (or cron jobs), automation, web applications, and chatbots.
Common FaaS service platform providers are:
In the following tutorial, we are going to create a demo to deploy on a serverless infrastructure provider such as AWS Lambda.
In order to build and deploy a backend function to handle a certain operation, I am going to start with setting up the service provider you are going to use to follow this article. AWS Lambda supports different runtimes such as Node.js, Java, Python, .NET Core and Go for you to execute a function.
The function runs inside a container with a 64-bit Amazon Linux AMI. You might be thinking, ‘why I am telling you all of this?’ Well, using serverless for the first time can be a bit overwhelming and if you know what you are getting in return, that’s always good! More geeky stuff is listed below.
The execution duration here means that your Lambda function can only run a maximum of 5 minutes. This does mean that it is not meant for running longer processes. The disk space is the form of a temporary storage. The package size refers to the code necessary to trigger the server function. In case of Node.js, this does mean that any dependencies that are being imported into our server (for example,
A typical lambda function in a Node.js server will look like below.
In the above syntax,
handlerFunction is the name of our Lambda function. The
event object contains information about the event that triggers the lambda function on execution. The
context object contains information about the runtime. Rest of the code is written inside the Lambda function and at last a
callback is invoked with an error object and result object. We will learn more about these objects later when are going to implement them.
In order to setup a Lambda function on AWS, we need to first register an account for the access keys. Use your credentials to login or signup a new account on console.amazon.com and once you are through the verification process you will be welcomed by the following screen.
To get the keys and permissions in order to deploy a function, we have to switch to Identity and Access Management (IAM). Then go to
Users tab from the left hand sidebar and click on the button
Add user. Fill in the details in the below form and do enable
Access Type > Programmatic Access.
Then on the next page, select
Attach Existing Policies Directly and then select a policy name
Next: Review button and then click
Create User button when displayed. Proceeding to the next step you will see the user was created. Now, and only now, will you have access to the users Access Key ID and Secret Access Key. This information is unique for every user you create.
We are going to use install an npm dependency first to proceed and scaffold a new project. Open up your terminal and install the following.
Once installed, we can run the serverless framework in the terminal by running the command:
Or use the shorthand
serverless. This command will display all the available commands that come with the serverless framework.
After installing the
serverless dependency as a global package, you are ready to create your first function. To start, you will need to configure your AWS registered user credentials. AWS gives you a link to download access keys when creating a user.
You can also visit your username and visit Security Credentials like below.
Now let us configure AWS with the serverless package.
If the above command runs successfully you will get a success message like below
The good thing about using
serverless npm package is that it comes with pre-defined templates that you can create in your project using a command and also creates a basic configuration for us that is required to deploy our Lambda function. To get started, I am going to use
aws-nodejs template inside a new directory.
-p flag will create a new directory with name
-t flag uses the pre-defined boilerplate. The result of this will create three new files in your project directory.
handler.jswhere we will write our handle function
serverless.ymlcontains the configuration
The default handler file looks like below.
In the above file,
hello is the function that has two parameters:
module.exports is basic Nodes syntax as well as the rest of the code. You can clearly see it also supports ES6 features. An
event is an object that contains all the necessary request data. The
context object contains AWS-specific values. We have already discussed it before. Let us modify this function to our needs and add a third parameter called the
handler.js file and edit the
callback function must be invoked with an
error response as the first argument, in our case it is
null right now or a valid response as the second argument which is currently sending a simple
Hello World message. We can now deploy this handler function using the command below from your terminal window.
It will take a few minutes to finish the process. Our serverless function gets packed into a
.zip file. Take a notice at the Service Information below. It contains all the information what endpoints are available, what is our function, where it is deployed and so on.
You can try the
invoke attribute like following to run the function and see the result.
The output will look like below.
Take a look at the configuration in
In this part of the tutorial, I will show you how to hook up a MongoDB database as a service to a Serverless REST API. We are going to need three things that will complete our tech stack. They are:
We already have the first two, all we need is to setup a MongoDB cloud database called Atlas. MongoDB Atlas is a database as a service developed by the team behind the MongoDB itself. Along with providing a free/paid tier for storing your data on the cloud, MongoDB Atlas provides a lot of analytics that is essential to manage and monitor your application. MongoDB Atlas does provide a free tier that we will be using with our serverless stack.
We will start by creating a database on the MongoDB Atlas. Login to the site and create an account if you do not have it already. We just need a sandbox environment to get hands-on experience so we must opt for free tier. Once you have your account set up, open up your account page and add a new organization.
Now, after entering the name, proceed further and click on Create Organization.
You will be then prompted to the main screen where you can create a new project. Type in the name of your project and proceed further.
MongoDB Atlas is secured by default. You need to set permissions before we leverage its usage in our app. You can name the database at the pointed field below.
Now, we can add our free sandbox to this project. It is called a cluster.
After all that, just add an admin user for the cluster and give him a really strong password. As you can see the price for this cluster will be
$0.00 forever. Your cluster will take a few minutes to deploy. While that is underway, let us finally start writing some code.
Next, we install all the necessary dependencies in order to create the API.
After that, we configure the
serverless.yml and add the other handler functions that we need to deploy.
The CRUD operations that will handle the functionalities of the REST API are going to be in the file
handler.js. Each event contains the event information of the current event that will be invoked from the
handler.js. In the above configuration file, we have defined each CRUD operation along with an event and the name. Also notice, when defining the
events in above file, we are associating an HTTP request with a
path that is going to be the endpoint of the CRUD operation in the API, the HTTP method and lastly,
I am going to demonstrate a simple Note taking app through our REST API. These CRUD operations are going to be the core of it. Since our API is going to be hosted remotely, we have to enable Cross-Origin Resource Sharing. No need to install another dependency on that. Serverless configuration file has support for it. Just specify in the
events section like
cors: true. By default, it is false.
If you are familiar with Node.js and Express framework you will notice there is little difference in creating a controller function that leads to the business logic of a route. The similar approach we are going to use to define in each handler function.
The context contains all the information about the handler function. How long it has been running, how much memory it is consuming among other things. In above, every function has the same value of
context.callbackWaitsForEmptyEventLoop set to false and starts with
connectToDatabase function call. The context object property
callbackWaitsForEmptyEventLoop value is by default set to true. This property is used to modify the behavior of a callback.
By default, the callback will wait until the event loop is empty before freezing the process and returning the results to the invoked function. By setting this property’s value to false, it requests the AWS Lambda to freeze the process after the callback is called, even if there are events in the event loop. You can read more about this context property at the official Lambda Documentation.
We need to create a connection between the database and our serverless functions in order to consume the CRUD operations in real-time. Create a new file called
db.js in the root and append it with following.
The is common Mongoose connection that you might have seen in other Nodejs apps if using MongoDB as a database. The only difference here is that we are exporting
connectToDatabase to import it inside
handler.js for each CRUD operation. Modify
handler.js file and import it at the top.
Next step is to define the data model we need in order for things to work. Mongoose provides this functionality too. Serverless stack is unopinionated about which ODM or ORM you use in your application. Create a new file called
notes.model.js and add the following.
Now import this model inside
handler.js for our callbacks at the top of the file.
Protecting our keys and other essentials is the first step to a secured backend application. Create a new file called variables.env. In this file, we will add our MONGODB connection URL that we have already used in
db.js as a
process.env.DB. The good thing about environment variables is that they are global to the scope of the application.
To find out our MongoDB URL, we need to go back to the mongodb atlas, to out previously created cluster. Click the button
Connect and then you will be prompted a page where you can choose how to access the application. Click
Allow Access From Anywhere.
Copy the mongodb URL from above and paste it in the
Replace the user and password field with your credentials. Now to make it work, all we have to add the following line in our
All you have to do is run the deploy command from the terminal.
Since we have connected our Lambda function, this command will prompt us with a different endpoints. Each handler function is deployed as a separate REST endpoint.
You can test your API using CURL command from the terminal like below.
You can find the complete code for this article in the below Github Repository 👇
Thanks to William Wickey for help editing.
November 13, 2018